The Written Language

Asked whether or now not the spoken or the written language is the real one, most would answer that the latter is, since speech poorly reflects it. In actuality, then again, the reverse is magnificent. The spoken language is predominant and writing, which succeeded it, is an man made representation of the sounds of us […]



Asked whether or now not the spoken or the written language is the real one, most would answer that the latter is, since speech poorly reflects it. In actuality, then again, the reverse is magnificent.

The spoken language is predominant and writing, which succeeded it, is an man made representation of the sounds of us assemble. Whereas all cultures, societies, and peoples intercommunicate via oral sounds, now not all languages possess written counterparts, and it became handiest leisurely in evolution that alphabets were created to match them.

Though the origins of language stay elusive and would perchance per chance handiest be surmised by theories, those of its written version are more determinable.

Writing, as a nonverbal dialog assemble, traces its roots to the pictorial representations, is named pictographs, that the Chinese language, and the hieroglyphs that the Egyptians employed. No topic the worthy distance between their areas of starting up build, there became colossal similarity between them.

Anthropologists and linguists take into consideration that both developed in Mesopotamia, or recent-day Iraq, throughout the fifth century BC and that the Egyptian hieroglyphs were pictographs left by the Sumerians. Symbolizing objects, equivalent to “river,” “apartment,” and “tree,” they soon evolved into ideographs, which represented phrases, equivalent to “up,” “one,” and “down.”

As shapes were formed, so, too, did cuneiform writing arise, scraped into gentle clay in Mesopotamia and then baked in advise that it formed a permanent fable. The oldest such examples were show in Nineveh and Ur, respectively Sumerian and Assyrian cities, throughout the third century BC.

Syllabic writing, a trend and mixture of ideographs, surfaced about 2500 BC and became adopted by the Akkadians and the Egyptians, again in Mesopotamia, and for the first time resulted in a representation that reflected syllables and phonetics.

The latter parameter, particularly, sparked the introduction of the alphabet, the first traces of that were show in Sinai between 2500 and 2000 BC. Complexity became minimized when the Eastern Semites reduced the selection of symbols from many of to about two dozen, every of which represented a consonant.

By 1500, the gadget became highly developed and became adopted, in modified assemble, by the Phoenicians, who lived in recent-day Lebanon, and the Semites. Thought just a few syllabary, it became presently adopted by the Hebrew gadget.

By the first century BC, it assumed recent assemble, when the Greeks living in Asia modified the initial gadget and added symbols for vowels. Vowels themselves had beforehand been understood by the Phoenicians, nonetheless were now not represented.

Migrating from Asia Minor to Northern Italy, the Romans derived their very possess alphabet from that of the Greeks and the Etruscans. Reshaped, it grew to turn out to be, for all intents and choices, the one standardly and broadly feeble by a spread of the enviornment’s languages at the present time, although adjustments were often required to match the respective one. In 600 AD, as an illustration, amendments were wanted to conform to the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon (Extinct English) tongues. Turkish, Swahili, Vietnamese, and Indonesian therefore adopted its use.

Loads of other written programs on the replacement hand persist. Aged Chinese language, as an illustration, concept to be as both monosyllabic and morphemic, employs pictographs, ideographs, and compound ideographs. Arabic, which, contrasted to square Hebrew, is curvy in personality, is equally feeble by Urdu, Persian, and Malay.

Developed by missionaries, who traveled to Russia to turn out to be its of us to Christianity, the Cyrillic alphabet is utilized by recent day Russian, to boot to Bulgarian, Serbia, Byelorussian, and Ukrainian.

Linguists proceed to assemble alphabets to match languages handiest beforehand spoken. But no topic gadget they use, whether or now not it entail pictographs, ideographs, hieroglyphs, cuneiform writing, syllabic writing, curly Arabic, square Hebrew, or the Greek, Roman, or Cyrillic alphabets, it will now not ever exactly match the spoken phrases they signify, indicating that the oral language is predominant and the written one handiest an man made representation of it.

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